Recently, On-chip tuning capacitors have had a major issue with being too lossy and causing problems for the user. This issue has been identified and according to the university of California, Santa Barbara has allegedly stated the issue is within the,
"deposition of complex oxides, such as barium strontium titanate, is problematic because of the high temperatures and oxygen-rich environment involved."
Also reporting another major issue has to do with the BST- based device being limited by the deposition and processing methods appose to the actual base material. A change in fabric has become a main solution to their overloading issue by replacing chemicals commonly used in photolithography that contaminate BST. The film in the chip requires a smaller electrode dimensions and finer lithography that the standard integrated capacitor structures. Another challenge that that they face is low-loss reactive devices are microwave frequencies.
Finding alternatives is their main concern to cease the unruly effects that the chip has been encountering. Over much research they have soon discovered that the deposition of low dielectric loss is possible from a hybrid,
“hybrid form of molecular beam epitaxy that uses metal organic precursors.”
As the BST capacitor have many uses they have soon to be used to create phase shifters for phased array antennas in mobile communications or also may be used in antennas in cellular communications.
Despite these unruly materials with the BST this is not the first dilemma of its type. According to Professor Robert York of UCSB there has already been,
"some barium strontium titanate devices are already used for commercial RF electronics, and the infrastructure for deposition and fabrication already exists within semiconductor foundries.”
As a result, the University to provide ICs with films that are placed exactly on metal electrodes.
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