Aviation is one of the most strictly regulated industries in the world, with thousands of rules in place to help ensure the safety of staff and commuters. In addition to vehicular requirements, such as airworthiness certificates and manufacturing procedures, there are also numerous protocols in place which relate to the operation of aircraft. For pilots of all experience levels and flying classes, one of the most critical to be familiar with is the airspace classification system. This system helps determine flight rules and accessibility for various regions while also governing aircraft behavior at particular altitudes. While there are unique rules implemented internationally, this blog will focus on the distinguishing characteristics of class A airspace in the United States.


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Maintaining aircraft stability is exceptionally complicated since all aircraft operate along three axes compared to other means of transport. As a result, misconceptions are rife in the aviation industry about the essential role of aircraft rudders since their effects are often unnoticeable.


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Wings are considered to be one of the most important parts when it comes to aircraft performance. When most people think of an airplane, they imagine a blueprint with straight wings, but in actuality, this could not be further from the truth. Wings are designed with washout features to prevent airplanes from stalling for almost every aircraft. In addition, they stabilize the aircraft in cases of an emergency, such as losing control of the vehicle.


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Bearings are mechanical elements that are indispensable to a wide number of applications, often serving to bear loads and facilitate the motion of moving parts while mitigating friction. Depending on the application and environment, various bearings may be used. In particular, roller ball bearing components, often referred to as rolling-element or rolling bearings, are those that take on loads through the use of rolling elements that are situated between races. Known for their optimal cost, size, weight, carrying capacity, friction, accuracy, and durability, it can be useful to have a general understanding of rolling-element bearings and their applications.


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A helicopter works by using activated airfoils to create lift, but instead of using traditional wings, the airfoils come in the form of chopper rotor blades. The rotor blade assembly spins at high-speeds, ranging from 400-500 RPM on smaller helicopters, and almost 225 RPM on a huge one depending on its width. Rotors look like thin blades that spin at high speeds to move massive amounts of air to pull the helicopter up. A skilled pilot can fly a helicopter with the ability to take off or land vertically, hover or spin, or drift in one direction, which is impossible in a conventional airplane.


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Carbureted engines have long been used as one of the main power sources for light aircraft. Due to their simple and reliable nature, carbureted engines have been employed as a primary power source on airplanes and motor vehicles for over 100 years. Given their ubiquity and rich history in aviation, it is important for anybody interested in the field to understand how these brilliantly designed engines work. In this blog, we will highlight everything you need to know about the aircraft carburetor.


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Fiber optics have begun revolutionizing the way in which we transfer data, their speeds and reliability far surpassing conventional copper wiring. As optical fibers feature an assembly of glass fibers that transmit data in the form of light, it is important that ample coating is implemented for the protection of the component and for its performance. To properly coat an optical fiber, one must first understand the purpose of coatings, common materials, dimensions, and more.


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As ships spend prolonged periods exploring charted and uncharted waters, it is crucial that both their internal and external structures are properly maintained. Making sure that the frames, cargo holds, propellers, and other structures are in optimal working condition ensures that you will not have to shorten your journey due to improper maintenance or impurities entering your systems. Such impurities can be prevented from entering through the use of filters and strainers. With this in mind, this blog will be covering different types of filters and strainers as well as their applications.


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Control valves play an integral role in establishing and maintaining an efficient process for a number of industrial and commercial applications. More than that, they are tasked to handle all kinds of fluids at varying temperature extremes. When selecting a control valve, you must consider not only your application, but the body style, material, and trim construction design you need.


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A classification of rotary bearing, ball bearings are mechanical tools that facilitate three main functions of moving parts when attached to a rotating assembly. Critical for carrying loads, reducing friction, and positioning parts, ball bearings also come in a variety of designs for optimal placement within an assembly. Of the many types of bearings available, ball bearings are known for their unique, yet simple, structure that is capable of supporting two load types: thrust and radial loads. Consisting of balls with a smooth outer surface encased in one or more rings or raceways, ball bearings dramatically reduce friction so long as each type is used for their respective applications. For a quick introduction to the many types of ball bearings available, we will go over their common types and how they should be applied to function best in an assembly.


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Within the realm of construction and industrial operations, rigging refers to the processes of transferring equipment around a space with the use of various safety equipment and rigging tools. Taking advantage of the right hardware for a particular job is crucial for efficiency and safety, and there are numerous types of equipment that may be used for a particular need. To better understand how such equipment can be relied on for the safe transportation of various items, we will provide a brief overview of the most common types of rigging hardware.


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While aircraft manufacturers are always searching for ways to improve technologies and structures to achieve more efficient and powerful flight, so too are they seeking greener initiatives to curb airplane emissions. As governments and organizations around the world adopt the importance of limiting heat-trapping emissions that source from operating aircraft, countless initiatives have come about for achieving such goals. Ranging from new fuel types that are more efficient to lighter components that reduce the amount of fuel needed to maintain sufficient lift and speed, many projects seek to find ways in which pollutants may be minimized. In this blog, we will discuss some of the technologies that are being developed to curb airplane emissions, allowing you to better understand the forward path of the aviation industry as a whole.


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In regard to electric power systems, an electrical switchgear is a collection of electrical disconnect switches, fuses, circuit breakers, and other equipment that are charged with managing, protecting, and isolating electrical equipment. As a staple of electrical chains, the switchgear ensures that the supply provided to various appliances and machinery is at a safe value. Due to the fact that electrical switchgear may handle voltage values upwards of 1,100 KV, it is important that personnel handle such equipment with extreme caution to ensure safety. In this blog, we will discuss the most common dangers associated with electric switchgear so that you may enact proper protection and practices for workers and equipment.


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Fiber optics and fiber optic connectors have been revolutionizing communications since their debut, allowing for signals to be transferred over extreme distances at much higher speeds as compared to traditional copper wiring. While fiber optics have already seen major implementation for internet communication and medical appliances, such technology also poses a major benefit for avionics. With the use of fiber optics for next generation system design, size, weight, and power challenges can all be met alongside ensuring further protection from Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).


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Seacocks are valves that are placed on the hull of a boat or ship which in order to allow water to flow in or out of the vessel. They can be used for varying applications, including the cooling of engines with sea water to the removal of water from a sink drain. While many individuals may want to use a through-hull fitting, such additions can be risky as they can sink ships if not formed correctly. While a tee connector on an existing inlet is most preferred, there are times in which a new through-hull fitting is either needed or more advantageous. In this blog, we will provide a brief overview of how seacocks are safely installed or replaced on marine vessels.


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Turbochargers are among the most advanced engine components of an onboard ship. The impeller blades of a medium sized turbocharger commonly rotate at speeds up to 400 revolutions per second, and the outer edges of the rotor blades therefore move at more than one and a half times the speed of sound. As turbochargers are critical components, it is important that proper procedures for safety and cleaning are always adhered to. In this blog, we will discuss the best practices for safety and turbocharger overhaul & cleaning.


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When automobiles began making the shift from manual transmission to those that are automatic, a number of parts and assemblies had to be adjusted to accommodate such changes. In manual transmission vehicles, a component known as the clutch is what connects the transmission to the engine. Without it, the vehicle would face an engine kill every time it came to a stop. With automatic transmissions, the clutch is no longer needed as it is replaced with a component known as a torque converter.


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When flying at night, pilots need a reliable means of illuminating their aircraft’s instrument panel. Although most new aircraft feature pre-lit instruments, many pilots are in need of a lighting system for their existing instruments. This blog will offer a few suggestions of how to keep your instruments lit and visible.


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Turbonormalizing and turbocharging engines share many characteristics. They both compress outside ambient air to create engine power, they both use an exhaust driven turbine to power a centrifugal compressor at high speeds, and they can both use the same turbo components. When designing a turbonormalizing system, the manufacturer usually starts with a normally aspirated engine and begs the question: while making the fewest changes, how can I take this normally aspirated engine and make it operate at sea level power at altitudes greater than 18,000 feet? In reality, the turbocharging system was designed based on the same question. The answer, for both, is a list of eight additions to be made:


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To simplify what a photodetector is, it can be a wide range of modern devices and gadgets, They are among the most universal kinds of innovation being used today. They consist of  simple gadgets on televisions to photodiodes in a fiber optic association, to camcorders and even to gigantic clusters utilized by space experts to identify radiation from the opposite side of the universe. Photodetectors are available in a colossal assortment of gadgets utilized in business, industry, diversion and exploration. Indeed, the field of photodetector plan and use has developed to the point that a couple of experts have a total diagram. Generally, photodetectors incorporate any gadget for enlisting photons with frequencies over that of radio waves—from far infrared on up to gamma beams. In this article we will discuss the fundamental basic uses of photodetectors.


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